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  • Structure of an email (Headers and bodies)

    Structure of an email An email has three basic parts: The header, a set of lines containing information about the message's transportation, such as the sender's address, the recipient's address, or timestamps showing when the message was ... Read more

    Email
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Types of networks

    Different types of networks LAN MANs WANs Different types of networks Different types of (private) networks are distinguished based on their size (in terms of the number of machines), their data transfer speed, and their reach. Private ... Read more

    Introduction to Networks
    October 29, 2013 at 04:11 PM
  • DTS (Digital Theater Sound)

    DTS standard More information DTS standard DTS (Digital Theater Sound) is a digital sound coding standard created by Universal. Compared with the Dolby Digital standard, DTS uses four times less compression and digitises sound at 20 bits ... Read more

    Audio
    November 12, 2012 at 02:14 PM
  • Spreadsheet - Formulas

    Introduction to Formulas The main use of a spreadsheet is to automate calculations, which means using cells to perform operations based on values in other cells. The spreadsheet recalculates all the values each time a change is made to the ... Read more

    Spreadsheet
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Data transmission - Transmission modes

    Transmission modes A given transmission on a communications channel between two machines can occur in several different ways. The transmission is characterised by: the direction of the exchanges the transmission mode: the number of bits ... Read more

    Data transmission
    November 8, 2012 at 12:42 PM
  • Computer bus - What is it?

    Definition Characteristics Architecture The primary buses Chipset Definition A bus, in computing, is a set of physical connections (cables, printed circuits, etc.) which can be shared by multiple hardware components in order to communicate ... Read more

    Computer
    October 31, 2016 at 10:53 AM
  • Networking - 3-Tier Client/Server Architecture

    Introduction to 2-Tier Architecture 2-tier architecture is used to describe client/server systems where the client requests resources and the server responds directly to the request, using its own resources. This means that the server does ... Read more

    Client/Server
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • How email works (MTA, MDA, MUA)

    Email, as simple as it is to use, relies on a more complicated set of operating procedures than that of the Web. For most users, its operation is transparent, which means that it is not necessary to understand how email works in order to ... Read more

    Email
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • WiFi modes of operation (802.11 or Wi-Fi)

    There are several kinds of hardware that may be used to implement a WiFi wireless network: Wireless adapters or network interface controllers (NICs for short) are network cards with the 802.11 standard which let a machine connect to a ... Read more

    Wifi
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Introduction to e-Commerce (electronic commerce)

    Introduction to e-Business The term "Electronic commerce" (or e-Commerce) refers to the use of an electronic medium to carry out commercial transactions. Most of the time, it refers to the sale of products via Internet, but the term ... Read more

    e-Business
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Introduction to e-Business

    Introduction to e-Business It is widely acknowledged today that new technologies, in particular access to the Internet, tend to modify communication between the different players in the professional world, notably: relationships between ... Read more

    e-Business
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Programming languages

    Programming language A "programming language" is a language designed to describe a set of consecutive actions to be executed by a computer. A programming language is therefore a practical way for us (humans) to give instructions to a ... Read more

    Programming
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Serial port and parallel port

    Serial ports are generally built into the mother board, which is why the connectors behind the casing and connected to the mother board by a wire cable can be used to connect an exterior element. Serial connectors generally have 9 or 25 ... Read more

    Computer
    July 16, 2015 at 11:47 AM
  • Bluetooth - How it works

    How Bluetooth works Communication principle Establishing connections Bluetooth profiles How Bluetooth works The Bluetooth standard, like WiFi, uses the FHSS technique (Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum), which involves splitting the ... Read more

    Bluetooth
    October 29, 2013 at 04:30 PM
  • Introduction to encryption with DES

    DES, secret-key decryption On 15 May 1973, the NBS (National Bureau of Standards, now called NIST - National Institute of Standards and Technology) published a request in the Federal Register for an encryption algorithm that would meet the ... Read more

    Cryptography
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Operating Systems - MS-DOS - Commands

    Command Description dir lists the contents of a folder cd changes folder cd .. parent folder md or mkdir creates a new folder deltree deletes a folder and all sub-folders copy, xcopy copies a file move moves a file del deletes a file type ... Read more

    MS Dos
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • URL manipulation attacks

    Introduction to URLs The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of a web application is the vector that makes it possible to indicate the requested resource. It is a string of printable ASCII characters that is divided into five parts: The name of ... Read more

    Attacks
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Cables and connectors

    Connectors In information science, connectors, normally called "input-output connectors" (or I/O for short), are interfaces for linking devices by using cables. They generally have a male end with pins protruding from it. This plug is ... Read more

    Cables and connectors
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Binary encoding

    Introduction to binary In the late 1930s, Claude Shannon showed that by using switches which were closed for "true" and open for "false," it was possible to carry out logical operations by assigning the number 1 to "true" and 0 for "false ... Read more

    Encoding
    July 8, 2014 at 12:00 PM
  • Creating an RJ45 crossover cable

    What's an RJ45 plug? A network card may have several types of connectors, with the most common being: An RJ45 connector; A BNC connector (coaxial cable). The RJ-45 is the one which interests us here, as it it the most widely used. The ... Read more

    Cables and connectors
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM