Linux - Tree structure of files

December 2016

File hierarchy under Linux

To ensury compatibility and portability, Linux systems comply with the sole FHS (File Hierarchy Standard) standard. The basic hierarchy is as follows:

/the root, containing the main directories
/bincontains essential executables of the system, used by all the users (such as, for example, the commands ls, rm, cp, chmod, mount, etc.)
/bootcontains the files which allow Linux to start up
/devcontains the entry points for the peripherals
/etccontains the commands and the files that are necessary for the system administrator (files passwd, group, inittab, ld.so.conf, lilo.conf, etc.)
/etc/X11contains the specific files for the configuration of X (contains XF86Config, for example)
/etc/optcontains the specific configuration files for the applications installed in /opt
/homepersonal user directory
/libcontains shared libraries that are essential for the system during startup
/mntcontains mount points of temporary partions (CD-Rom, floppy disk, etc.)
/optcontains packages of supplementary applications
/rootdirectory of the root administrator
/sbincontains the essential binary systems (for example the command adduser)
/tmpcontains temporary files
/usrSecondary hierarchy
/usr/X11R6this directory is reserved for the system X version 11 release 6
/usr/X386used before by X version 5, this is a symbolic link with /usr/X11R6
/usr/bincontains the majority of the binary files and user commands
/usr/includecontains the header files for the programs C and C++
/usr/libcontains most shared libraries of the system
/usr/localcontains data pertaining to the programs installed on the local machine by the root
/usr/local/binbinaries of local programs
/usr/local/gamesbinaries of local games
/usr/local/includelocal C et C++ header files
/usr/local/libShared local libraries
/usr/local/sbinLocal system binaries
/usr/local/shareIndependent hierarchy
/usr/local/srcLocal source files
/usr/sbincontains the binary files that are not essential for the system that are reserved for the system administrator
/usr/sharereserved for non-dependent data of the architecture
/usr/srccontains code source files
/varcontains variable data

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