The stages of the project
In order to be managed in an atmosphere of quality, a project must pass through various phases, at the end of which milestones should be defined. Each stage is related to a deliverable and a validation based on a specific document. This allows monitoring of the conformity of deliverables with the rquirements defined and ensures that cost and time goals are met.
These validation stages, which constitute one of the tasks of project management, allow for the rapid discovery of defects and adaptation to new constraints that arise due to issues not initially foreseen. Monitoring the time allotted to each task is essential, and risk analysis is indispensable. In fact, at the launch of the project, there is a great deal of uncertainty, to the extent that the characteristics are not yet formalized. This presents so many risks to the project that it is necessary to try to identify and anticipate them. Thus, measures must be provided for both to prevent the appearance of these risks and to correct them, if necessary.
At each stage, it is possible to decide to stop the project if the client believes that the objectives cannot be achieved.
The term milestone
is used to designate the sensitive events involved in carrying out a project that need monitoring. Each milestone allows for verification that the conditions necessary to pursue the project are met. The system of milestone dates is referred to as the schedule.
The chain of stages and validations between the emergence of the need and the delivery of the product is referred to as the "product life cycle". The "works life cycle" corresponds to the stages and deliverables necessary for the performance of the works.
The project can basically be delineated as follows:
- Preparatory phase
: This phase allows participants to gain an understanding of the project, to study the subject of the project to make sure that its implementation is relevant and fits within the company's strategy. This phase, generally considered Pre-Project, must be concluded by finalizing the documents that formalize the project and indicate the organizational conditions for its performance.
- Implementation phase: This is the operational phase in which the work is performed. It is carried out by the contractor, in concert with the client. This phase begins with the receipt of the specifications and ends with the delivery of the work.
- End phase: at this point, the work is put into production, i.e., the parties mustmake sure that the work conforms to the users' expectations and ensure that its "installation" and use are done correctly. To the extent that the contractor knows the product it has finalized, it is responsible for installing it
These three phases are: adjustment, running, conclusion. Each of these macro phases can be broken down into stages. The breakdown proposed is based on the MERISE
method. This is one of the most commonly used methods, but there are certainly others.
It is essential during project start-up to ensure that the contractor and client are in agreement on a common method and their respective responsibilities (decisionmaking cycle).