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  • NAT- Network address translation, port forwarding and port trigg

    The principle of NAT Network address translation or NAT was developed in order to respond to the shortage of IP addresses with IPv4 protocol (in time the IPv6 protocol will respond to this problem). In fact, in IPv4 addressing the number ... Read more

    Internet (protocols)
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • OOP - Data encapsulation

    The concept of encapsulation Encapsulation is a way of organizing data and methods into a structure by concealing the the way the object is implemented, i.e. preventing access to data by any means other than those specified. Encapsulation ... Read more

    Object-Oriented Programming
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Types of computers

    Types of computers There are several families of computers, depending on their format: Mainframes, computers which a great deal of computing power, enormous input-output capabilities and high level of reliability. Mainframes are used by ... Read more

    Computer
    November 1, 2012 at 04:13 PM
  • OOP - Inheritance

    The concept of inheritance Inheritance is specific to object-oriented programming, where a new class is created from an existing class. Inheritance (often referred to as subclasses) comes from the fact that the subclass (the newly created ... Read more

    Object-Oriented Programming
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Introduction to Spreadsheet Concepts

    What is a Spreadsheet? A spreadsheet (or spreadsheet program) is software that permits numerical data to be used and to perform automatic calculations on numbers contained in a table. It is also possible to automate complex calculations by ... Read more

    Spreadsheet
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Cathode Ray Tube monitor (CRT)

    Cathode ray tube monitor Most monitors (computer screens) use cathode ray tubes (or CRT for short), which are glass vacuum tubes into which an electron gun emits a flow of electrons guided by an electrical field towards a screen covered in ... Read more

    Computer
    April 28, 2009 at 10:40 AM
  • Declaring a style sheet (CSS)

    Declaring a style sheet Style sheets are not directly integrated into the W3C's HTML recommendations. For this reason, you need to include elements in the HTML code indicating both the type of document, meaning the version of the HTML and ... Read more

    CSS
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Client/Server Environment

    Introduction to Client/Server Architecture Numerous applications run in a client/server environment, this means that client computers (computers forming part of the network) contact a server, generally a very powerful computer in terms of ... Read more

    Client/Server
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • WiMAX - 802.16 - Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

    What is WiMAX ? WiMAX is short for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. It is a metropolitan wireless standard created by the companies Intel and Alvarion in 2002 and ratified by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and ... Read more

    Wimax
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • E-mail scams - Fund transfer scams

    Scams A "scam" is a fraudulent practice of African origin that involves extorting funds from internet users by enticing them with a sum of money and promising them a share of it. The use of scams originated in Nigeria, which has also given ... Read more

    Attacks
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Computer - Introduction to Memory

    The Role of Memory The term "memory" applies to any electronic component capable of temporarily storing data. There are two main categories of memories: internal memory that temporarily memorises data while programs are running. Internal ... Read more

    Computer
    November 1, 2012 at 04:15 PM
  • Spreadsheets - The Excel Interface

    Excel Introduction Microsoft Excel is the spreadsheet in the Microsoft Office office suite. To start it, simply click on the appropriate icon in the Start menu (in Windows) or click on an Excel file (that has an .xls file extension). A ... Read more

    Spreadsheet
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • DB9 connector

    DB9 connector The DB9 (originally DE-9) connector is an analog 9-pin plug of the D-Subminiature connector family (D-Sub or Sub-D). The DB9 connector is mainly used for serial connections, allowing for the asynchronous transmission of data ... Read more

    Cables and connectors
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Substitution cipher

    Substitution cipher Substitution cipher involves replacing one or more entities (generally letters) in a message with one or more other entities. There are several types of substitution cryptosystems: Monoalphabetic substitution involves ... Read more

    Cryptography
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Risks related to wireless WiFi networks (802.11 or Wi-Fi)

    Lack of security Radio waves intrinsically have the power to propagate in all directions, with a relatively wide range. Because of this, it is very difficult to keep radio broadcasts confined to a limited area. Radio propagation also ... Read more

    Wifi
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Rules for proper email use

    Netiquette Netiquette (a contraction of the words "Net" and "etiquette") refers to the set of rules governing correct behavior on the Internet, in order to respect others and be respected in turn. They serve as guidelines for civility and ... Read more

    Email
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Information security officer (ISO)

    Information security officer (ISO) An ISO (information security officer) is in charge of setting and a company's security policy. He/she also plays a critical role in informing, advising, and alerting the general management on matters ... Read more

    IT professions
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Front Office and Back Office

    Front Office/Back Office The terms Front Office and Back Office are generally used to describe the parts of the company (or of its information system) that are dedicated, respectively, to the direct relationship with the client and proper ... Read more

    e-Business
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • RTP/RTCP protocols

    Document written by Nico VanHaute, Julien Barascud and Jean-Roland Conca Introduction: What are RTP and RTCP? The spread of computers, added to the availability of cheap audio/video computer hardware, and the availability of higher ... Read more

    Internet (protocols)
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • History of the hard drive

    History of the hard drive The first hard drive was invented in early 1956, at the request of the US Air Force, by the company IBM. It was called the RAMAC 305 (with the name standing for Random Access Method of Accounting and Control), a ... Read more

    Computer history
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM