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  • Messaging protocols (SMTP,POP3 and IMAP4)

    Introduction to e-mail E-mail is considered as being the most widely used service on the Internet. So the TCP/IP protocol suite offers a range of protocols allowing the easy management of email routing over the network. The SMTP protocol ... Read more

    Internet (protocols)
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Hardware Interrupts (IRQ) and Conflicts

    The Concept of Interrupts DMA Base Addresses Hardware Conflicts IRQ Configuration Resolving Hardware Conflicts The Concept of Interrupts Because the processor cannot simultaneously process several pieces of information (it processes one ... Read more

    Computer
    October 29, 2013 at 04:33 PM
  • The Klez virus

    Introduction to the Klez virus Appearing early in 2002, the Klez virus is still everywhere on networks, and the danger it poses is even higher due to the new variations that keep cropping up (like Klez.e, Klez.g, Klez.h, Klez.i, Klez.k, ... Read more

    Viruses and threats
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Cryptography - S/MIME

    Introduction to S/MIME S/MIME (for Secure MIME, or Secure Multipurpose Mail Extension) is a security process used for e-mail exchanges that makes it possible to guarantee the confidentiality and non-repudiation of electronic messages. S/ ... Read more

    Cryptography
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Processor

    Introduction Operation Instructions Registers Cache Memory Control Signals Functional Units Transistor Integrated Circuits Families Instruction Set CISC ... Read more

    Computer
    August 21, 2013 at 12:56 AM
  • Network tests and diagnostics

    Testing the IP configuration Before doing anything else, you are advised to check the computer's IP configuration. Windows systems offer a command-line tool, called ipconfig, that lets you find out your computer's IP configuration. The ... Read more

    Network configuration
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Introduction to DOS

    The development of MS-DOS MS-DOS is the most well known operating system, the most commercialised version is that of Microsoft, christened "MS-DOS" (there are other versions such as DR-DOS). MS-DOS was created in 1981 when it was used on ... Read more

    MS Dos
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • OOP - Polymorphism

    Definition of polymorphism The word polymorphism comes from Greek and means having several different forms. This is one of the essential concepts of object-oriented programming. Where inheritance is related to classes and (their hierarchy ... Read more

    Object-Oriented Programming
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • History of the hard drive

    History of the hard drive The first hard drive was invented in early 1956, at the request of the US Air Force, by the company IBM. It was called the RAMAC 305 (with the name standing for Random Access Method of Accounting and Control), a ... Read more

    Computer history
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • The GSM standard

    Introduction to the GSM standard The GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) network is, at the start of the 21st century, the most commonly used mobile telephony standard in Europe. It is a so-called "second generation" (2G) ... Read more

    Mobile phones
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Introduction to Windows NT

    Introduction to Microsoft Windows NT Windows NT (for "New Technology") is a 32-bit operating system developed by Microsoft. Windows NT's outward appearance makes it look a lot like Windows 95/98/Millennium, but Windows NT has a separately ... Read more

    Windows NT (XP,Vista,...)
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Proxy and reverse proxy servers

    Proxy servers A proxy server is a machine which acts as an intermediary between the computers of a local area network (sometimes using protocols other than TCP/IP) and the Internet Most of the time the proxy server is used for the web, and ... Read more

    Local Area Network
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Connecting the computer to a HIFI sound system

    Why connect a computer to a sound system? These days, computers provide sound quality that is as good as hifi sound systems. It is possible to use them to listen to music, in particular thanks to mp3 files that provide sound quality that ... Read more

    Practical notes
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Spreadsheets - Mathematical Functions

    Standard Functions Function Description ABS() This function returns the absolute value of a number. It therefore returns the number, if it is positive, or the opposite (positive) if it is negative ODD(value) Rounds a number up to the ... Read more

    Spreadsheet
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Propagation of Radio Waves (802.11)

    Propagation of Radio Waves In order to be able to install a wireless network, and in particular to place the access points so as to get the best range possible, a little background should be given on how radio waves propagate. Radio waves ... Read more

    Wireless
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Establishing a Quality Procedure

    Establishing a Quality Procedure Improving quality (reducing bad quality and improving work processes) in a company requires reflection by both the management and all the employees in order to define the reachable goals in terms of quality ... Read more

    Quality
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Introduction to IT Security

    As Internet use is developing, more and more companies are opening their information system to their partners and suppliers. Therefore, it is essential to know which of the company's resources need protecting and to control system access ... Read more

    Security
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Environment variables

    Environment variables An environment variable is a dynamic value loaded into the memory that can be used by several processes operating simultaneously. On most operating systems, the location of some libraries or of the main system ... Read more

    Operating System
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • DBMS models

    The various database models Databases appeared in the late 1960s, at a time when the need for a flexible information management system had arisen. There are five models of DBMS, which are distinguished based on how they represent the data ... Read more

    Databases
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • MKV format (Matroska Video)

    MKV format The MKV format (Matroska Video) is an entirely free video format. More precisely, it is a container (hence the name Matroska, in reference to the Russian dolls contained within another) making it possible to contain video (DivX, ... Read more

    Video
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM