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  • DTS (Digital Theater Sound)

    DTS standard DTS standard DTS (Digital Theater Sound) is a digital sound coding standard created by Universal. Compared with the Dolby Digital standard, DTS uses four times less compression and digitises sound at 20 bits instead of 16. ... Read more

    April 9, 2018 at 09:04 AM
  • Types of networks

    Different types of networks LAN MANs WANs Different types of networks Different types of (private) networks are distinguished based on their size (in terms of the number of machines), their data transfer speed, and their reach. Private ... Read more

    Introduction to Networks
    February 6, 2018 at 05:38 AM
  • Structure of an email (Headers and bodies)

    Structure of an email An email has three basic parts: The header, a set of lines containing information about the message's transportation, such as the sender's address, the recipient's address, or timestamps showing when the message was ... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Spreadsheet - Formulas

    Introduction to Formulas The main use of a spreadsheet is to automate calculations, which means using cells to perform operations based on values in other cells. The spreadsheet recalculates all the values each time a change is made to the ... Read more

    March 15, 2018 at 03:55 PM
  • How email works (MTA, MDA, MUA)

    Email, as simple as it is to use, relies on a more complicated set of operating procedures than that of the Web. For most users, its operation is transparent, which means that it is not necessary to understand how email works in order to be ... Read more

    February 27, 2018 at 06:17 AM
  • Data transmission - Transmission modes

    Transmission modes A given transmission on a communications channel between two machines can occur in several different ways. The transmission is characterised by: the direction of the exchanges the transmission mode: the number of bits ... Read more

    Data transmission
    November 8, 2012 at 12:42 PM
  • Introduction to e-Commerce (electronic commerce)

    Introduction to e-Business The term "Electronic commerce" (or e-Commerce) refers to the use of an electronic medium to carry out commercial transactions. Most of the time, it refers to the sale of products via Internet, but the term ... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • WiFi modes of operation (802.11 or Wi-Fi)

    There are several kinds of hardware that may be used to implement a WiFi wireless network: Wireless adapters or network interface controllers (NICs for short) are network cards with the 802.11 standard which let a machine connect to a ... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Computer bus - What is it?

    Definition Characteristics Architecture The primary buses Chipset Definition A bus, in computing, is a set of physical connections (cables, printed circuits, etc.) which can be shared by multiple hardware components in order to communicate ... Read more

    October 31, 2016 at 10:53 AM
  • Networking - 3-Tier Client/Server Architecture

    Introduction to 2-Tier Architecture 2-tier architecture is used to describe client/server systems where the client requests resources and the server responds directly to the request, using its own resources. This means that the server does ... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Introduction to encryption with DES

    DES, secret-key decryption On 15 May 1973, the NBS (National Bureau of Standards, now called NIST - National Institute of Standards and Technology) published a request in the Federal Register for an encryption algorithm that would meet the ... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • PPP and SLIP protocols

    The majority of people, not having lines (cable or Ethernet) linked directly to the Internet, must use telephone lines (the most widely used network) to connect to the Internet. The connection is made using a modem, a device capable of ... Read more

    Internet (protocols)
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Binary encoding

    Introduction to binary In the late 1930s, Claude Shannon showed that by using switches which were closed for "true" and open for "false," it was possible to carry out logical operations by assigning the number 1 to "true" and 0 for "false ... Read more

    July 8, 2014 at 12:00 PM
  • URL manipulation attacks

    Introduction to URLs The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of a web application is the vector that makes it possible to indicate the requested resource. It is a string of printable ASCII characters that is divided into five parts: The name of ... Read more

    April 12, 2018 at 03:55 AM
  • Data transmission - Digital data transmission

    Introduction to digital transmission Digital transmission is the sending of information over a physical communications media in the form of digital signals. Analogue signals must therefore be digitised first before being transmitted. ... Read more

    Data transmission
    February 6, 2018 at 05:42 AM
  • Introduction to e-Business

    Introduction to e-Business It is widely acknowledged today that new technologies, in particular access to the Internet, tend to modify communication between the different players in the professional world, notably: relationships between ... Read more

    March 15, 2018 at 03:45 PM
  • Programming languages

    Programming language A "programming language" is a language designed to describe a set of consecutive actions to be executed by a computer. A programming language is therefore a practical way for us (humans) to give instructions to a ... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Serial port and parallel port

    Serial ports are generally built into the mother board, which is why the connectors behind the casing and connected to the mother board by a wire cable can be used to connect an exterior element. Serial connectors generally have 9 or 25 ... Read more

    July 16, 2015 at 11:47 AM
  • Partition - Partitioning a hard drive

    What is a partition? The partitioning of a hard drive occurs after the drive has been physically formatted but before it is logically formatted. It involves creating areas on the disk where data will not be mixed. It can be used, for ... Read more

    Computer: maintenance
    April 28, 2009 at 06:04 AM
  • The concept of networks

    What is a network? The generic term "network" refers to a group of entities (objects, people, etc.) which are connected to one another. A network, therefore, allows material or immaterial elements to be circulated among all of these ... Read more

    Introduction to Networks
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM