Special characters

Special character codings

HTML standards require all code to be written in 7-bit ASCII, which means that accented characters are not allowed. Despite this, current browsers recognise accented characters; you can enter accented characters directly in your text editor, but your page will be unreadable in most countries. To code an accented character, enter a certain string which begins with an ampersand (&) and ends with a semi-colon (;). Here is a list of HTML representations for ASCII characters from 128 to 255:

Character ISO Code HTML Code
" " "
& & &
  
‚  
Æ’ ƒ  
„  
…  
†  
‡  
ˆ ˆ  
‰  
Å  Š  
‹ <
Å’ Œ  
  
Ž Ž  
  
  
‘  
’  
“  
”  
•  
–  
—  
Ëœ ˜  
â„¢  
Å¡ š  
› >
Å“ œ œ
  
ž ž  
Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ
Space    
¡ ¡ ¡
¢ ¢ ¢
£ £ £
¤ ¤ ¤
¥ ¥ ¥
¦ ¦ ¦
§ § §
¨ ¨ ¨
© © ©   
ª ª ª
« « «
¬ ¬ ¬
­ ­ ­
® ® ®
¯ ¯ &masr;
° ° °
± ± ±
² ² ²
³ ³ ³
´ ´ ´
µ µ µ
· · ·
¸ ¸ ¸
¹ ¹ ¹
º º º
» » »
¼ ¼ ¼
½ ½ ½
¾ ¾ ¾
¿ ¿ ¿
À À À
Á Á Á
  Â
à à Ã
Ä Ä Ä
Å Å Å
Æ Æ &Aelig
Ç Ç Ç
È È È
É É É
Ê Ê Ê
Ë Ë Ë
Ì Ì Ì
Í Í Í
Î Î Î
Ï Ï Ï
Ð Ð ð
Ñ Ñ Ñ
Ò Ò Ò
Ó Ó Ó
Ô Ô Ô
Õ Õ Õ
Ö Ö Ö
× × ×
Ø Ø Ø
Ù Ù Ù
Ú Ú Ú
Û Û Û
Ü Ü Ü
Ý Ý Ý
Þ Þ þ
ß ß ß
à à à
á á á
â â â
ã ã ã
ä ä ä
å å å
æ æ æ
ç ç ç
è è è
é é é
ê ê ê
ë ë ë
ì ì ì
í í í
î î î
ï ï ï
ð ð ð
ñ ñ ñ
ò ò ò
ó ó ó
ô ô ô
õ õ õ
ö ö ö
÷ ÷ ÷
ø ø ø
ù ù ù
ú ú ú
û û û
ü ü ü
ý ý ý
þ þ þ
ÿ ÿ ÿ

Encoding HTML symbols

The characters <, >, " and & are used very frequently in HTML markup. The character < is especially important, as the browser interprets it as the opening of a new HTML tag. When these characters are used in text on a website, they must be coded in HTML as given below; otherwise the browser may display the page incorrectly.

Character ISO Code HTML Code
" " "
& & &
‹ <
› >

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