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  • Binary Encoding

    In the late 1930s, Claude Shannon showed that by using switches which that close for "true" and open for "false," it was possible to carry out logical operations by assigning the number 1 to "true" and 0 for "false." This information ... Read more

    Encoding
    June 19, 2018 at 07:24 PM
  • Introduction to Encryption with DES

    On May 15, 1973, the NBS (National Bureau of Standards, now called NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) published a request in the Federal Register for an encryption algorithm that would meet the following criteria: have a ... Read more

    Cryptography
    June 19, 2018 at 07:09 PM
  • PC Assembly

    A PC is a modular type of computer that can be assembled using hardware components made by ... Read more

    Computer: assembly
    June 22, 2018 at 01:52 AM
  • Web- Introduction to the World Wide Web

    The "Web," short for "World Wide Web" (which gives us the acronym www), is the name for one of the ways that the internet lets people browse documents connected by hypertext links. The concept of the Web was perfected at CERN (Conseil ... Read more

    World Wide Web
    March 2, 2016 at 05:01 AM
  • Introduction to email

    What is email? Electronic mail (also known as email or e-mail) is one of the most commonly used services on the Internet, allowing people to send messages to one or more recipients. Email was invented by Ray Tomlinson in 1972. Why use ... Read more

    Email
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Bluetooth - How it works

    How Bluetooth works Communication principle Establishing connections Bluetooth profiles How Bluetooth works The Bluetooth standard, like WiFi, uses the FHSS technique (Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum), which involves splitting the ... Read more

    Bluetooth
    October 29, 2013 at 04:30 PM
  • Cryptography - S/MIME

    Introduction to S/MIME S/MIME (for Secure MIME, or Secure Multipurpose Mail Extension) is a security process used for e-mail exchanges that makes it possible to guarantee the confidentiality and non-repudiation of electronic messages. S/ ... Read more

    Cryptography
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Denial of service attack

    Introduction to denial-of-service attacks A "denial-of-service attack" (abbreviated DoS) is a type of attack that aims to make an organization's services or resources unavailable for an indefinite amount of time. Most of the time, these ... Read more

    Attacks
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Introduction to power line communications (PLC)

    Introduction to PLC "Power Line Communications" basically means any technology that enables data transfer at narrow or broad band speeds through power lines by using advanced modulation technology. Depending on the country, the institution ... Read more

    Power Line Communications
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Spreadsheets - The Excel Interface

    Excel Introduction Microsoft Excel is the spreadsheet in the Microsoft Office office suite. To start it, simply click on the appropriate icon in the Start menu (in Windows) or click on an Excel file (that has an .xls file extension). A ... Read more

    Spreadsheet
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Office Automation - Introduction

    What is office automation? Office suite tools What is office automation? The term office automation refers to all tools and methods that are applied to office activities which make it possible to process written, visual, and sound data in ... Read more

    Office software
    March 15, 2018 at 03:53 PM
  • Computer - Introduction to Memory

    The Role of Memory The term "memory" applies to any electronic component capable of temporarily storing data. There are two main categories of memories: internal memory that temporarily memorises data while programs are running. Internal ... Read more

    Computer
    November 1, 2012 at 04:15 PM
  • Representation of real numbers and integers

    Representing a number in a computer Representing (or encoding) a number means to express it in binary form. Representing numbers in a computer is necessary in order for it to be able to store and manipulate them. However, the problem is ... Read more

    Encoding
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Cables and connectors

    Connectors In information science, connectors, normally called "input-output connectors" (or I/O for short), are interfaces for linking devices by using cables. They generally have a male end with pins protruding from it. This plug is ... Read more

    Cables and connectors
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Spreadsheet - Functions

    The Concept of a Function Spreadsheets generally have a large number of integrated functions for processing data. There are hundreds, categorised as follows: Arithmetic functions that offer basic tools to process numerical data Statistical ... Read more

    Spreadsheet
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • DB25 connector

    DB25 plugs The DB25 (originally DE-25) connector is an analog 25-pin plug of the D-Subminiature connector family (D-Sub or Sub-D). As with the DB9 connector, the DB25 is mainly used for serial connections, allowing for the asynchronous ... Read more

    Cables and connectors
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • MS DOS Files and directories

    Files in MS DOS In a computers data is stored in files. When you run a program, MS-DOS processes the data stored in the file and passes it to the system. In MS-DOS a file can be any size, however the file name is more restricted, it can ... Read more

    MS Dos
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Client/Server Environment

    Introduction to Client/Server Architecture Numerous applications run in a client/server environment, this means that client computers (computers forming part of the network) contact a server, generally a very powerful computer in terms of ... Read more

    Client/Server
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Private-key (or secret-key) cryptography

    Symmetric encryption Symmetric encryption (also called private-key encryption or secret-key encryption) involves using the same key for encryption and decryption. ... Read more

    Cryptography
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Substitution cipher

    Substitution cipher Substitution cipher involves replacing one or more entities (generally letters) in a message with one or more other entities. There are several types of substitution cryptosystems: Monoalphabetic substitution involves ... Read more

    Cryptography
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM