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  • Data transmission - Cabling

    Cabling types Coaxial cable Transceiver: the connection between Thinnet and Thicknet Coaxial cable connectors Twisted pair cabling Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Twisted pair connectors Fibre optics Cabling... Read more

    Data transmission
    November 7, 2012 at 08:25 AM
  • Introduction to Microsoft Windows

    History of Windows Windows is the operating system sold by the Seattle-based company Microsoft. Microsoft, originally christened "Traf-O-Data" in 1972, was renamed "Micro-soft" in November 1975, then "Microsoft" on November 26, 1976.... Read more

    Windows
    March 8, 2018 at 09:54 AM
  • CCM - Who We Are

    Welcome to CCM! We are the number one tech website in France (CommentCaMarche.net). Every day, millions of users around the world read our news, tips, reviews on downloads and participate in our forums. CCM stands for Comment Ça Marche,... Read more

    About Us
    September 2, 2020 at 06:44 AM
  • Data levels

    ANSI/SPARC levels The ANSI/SPARC architecture, which dates from 1975, defines abstraction levels for a database management system: Internal (or physical) level: defines how data is stored, and how it is accessed. Conceptual level: also... Read more

    Databases
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Operating Systems - Customising DOS

    The DOS start-up procedure is defined in the autoexec.bat and config.sys files located in the root of your "C:\" drive. We highly recommend making back up copies of these files before modifying them. To deactivate a line of command in... Read more

    MS Dos
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Enterprise Application Integration (EAI)

    Introduction to the EAI concept The purpose of EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) is the interoperability and organization of the flow of information between heterogeneous applications, i.e. ensure communcation between the... Read more

    e-Business
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Programming Languages

    A programming language is a language designed to describe a set of consecutive actions to be executed by a computer. A programming language is, therefore, a practical way for us humans to give instructions to a computer. Languages that... Read more

    Programming
    June 19, 2018 at 06:40 PM
  • Creating a LAN

    Why set up a LAN? If you have several computers, it may be worthwhile to connect them in order to create a local area network (LAN). Setting up such a network is much less expensive than what you might think. Here are a few ways you... Read more

    Practical notes
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Flashing the BIOS

    What does it mean "to flash"? The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is a small memory chip located on the motherboard containing data that defines the system parameters. The data may, however, contain errors (bugs). Furthermore, when new... Read more

    Computer: maintenance
    May 25, 2012 at 07:23 PM
  • Clusters

    The Concept of Clusters A "cluster" is an architecture made up of several computers that form nodes, where each node is able to operate independently. There are two main types of clusters: High-availability clusters spread a workload... Read more

    High availability
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Introduction to Wi-Fi (802.11 or WiFi)

    Introduction to Wi-Fi (802.11) The IEEE 802.11 specification (ISO/IEC 8802-11) is an international standard describing the characteristics of a wireless local area network (WLAN). The name Wi-Fi (short for "Wireless Fidelity", sometimes... Read more

    Wifi
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks

    Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMAN) A Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) is also known as a Wireless Local Loop (WLL). WMANs are based on the IEEE 802.16 standard. Wireless local loop can reach effective transfer speeds of... Read more

    Wireless
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Creating a local area network

    Why set up a local area network? When you have several computers, it can be convenient to connect them to each other to create a local area network (LAN). Setting up such a network costs very little, contrary to what people may think.... Read more

    Network configuration
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Installing a VPN server in Windows XP

    Advantages of a VPN The set-up of a virtual private network enables the secure connection of remote computers through an unreliable connection (Internet), as if they were on the same local area network. This process is used by a variety... Read more

    Network configuration
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Linking two PCs with a null modem cable

    Linking two computers without network cards The best way to link two computers is to use an RJ45 cable to connect the machines' network cards. However, when one or both of the computers has no network card, there is still a fairly easy... Read more

    Cables and connectors
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • TCP protocol

    The characteristics of TCP protocol TCP (which means Transmission Control Protocol) is one of the main protocols of the transport layer of the TCP/IP model. It makes it possible, at application level, to manage data coming from (or... Read more

    Internet (protocols)
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Proxy and reverse proxy servers

    Proxy servers A proxy server is a machine which acts as an intermediary between the computers of a local area network (sometimes using protocols other than TCP/IP) and the Internet Most of the time the proxy server is used for the web,... Read more

    Local Area Network
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Graphics cards - Video cards

    2D Accelerator Cards A graphics card, sometimes called a graphics adapter, video card or graphics accelerator, is a computer component which converts digital data into a graphical form which can be displayed on a monitor. The initial... Read more

    Computer
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • The GSM standard

    Introduction to the GSM standard The GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) network is, at the start of the 21st century, the most commonly used mobile telephony standard in Europe. It is a so-called "second generation" (2G)... Read more

    Mobile phones
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • PNG format

    PNG format The PNG format (Portable Network Graphics or Ping format) is a bitmap (raster) graphic file format. It was developed in 1995 in order to provide a free alternative to the GIF format, which is a proprietary format whose rights... Read more

    Video
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM