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  • The GSM standard

    Introduction to the GSM standard The GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) network is, at the start of the 21st century, the most commonly used mobile telephony standard in Europe. It is a so-called "second generation" (2G)... Read more

    Mobile phones
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Computer representation of color

    Color representations In order to be able to handle colors correctly and to exchange colorimetric information it is necessary to have the means to categorize them and to choose them. Thus, it is not uncommon to have the choice of the... Read more

    May 11, 2011 at 04:58 PM
  • Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks

    Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMAN) A Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) is also known as a Wireless Local Loop (WLL). WMANs are based on the IEEE 802.16 standard. Wireless local loop can reach effective transfer speeds of... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Copyright Information

    CCM's Creative Commons License Deed 3.0 Attribution — NonCommercial — ShareAlike 3.0 You are free to: Share — copy, distribute, display, and perform the work Adapt — make derivative works Under the following conditions: Attribution.... Read more

    Terms of Use
    June 12, 2018 at 05:59 AM
  • TCP session hijacking

    TCP session hijacking "TCP session hijacking" is a technique that involves intercepting a TCP session initiated between two machines in order to hijack it. In that the authentication check is performed only when opening the session, a... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • S/PDIF format

    S/PDIF format The S/PDIF standard ("Sony/Philips Digital Interface", or SPDIF for short) is a digital audio data transfer format. It is an international standard known as "IEC-958 type II", which defines both hardware specifications... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Network tests and diagnostics

    Testing the IP configuration Before doing anything else, you are advised to check the computer's IP configuration. Windows systems offer a command-line tool, called ipconfig, that lets you find out your computer's IP configuration. The... Read more

    Network configuration
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Electronic signatures

    Introduction to the concept of electronic signatures The paradigm of electronic signatures (also called digital signatures) is a process that makes it possible to guarantee the sender's authenticity (authentication function) and verify... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Cryptography - Secure Sockets Layers (SSL)

    Introduction to SSL SSL (Secure Sockets Layers) is a process that manages the security of transactions made on the Internet. The SSL standard was developed by Netscape, together with Mastercard, Bank of America, MCI and Silicon... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • TMA (Third-Party Application Maintenance)

    Third-party application maintenance The term third-party application maintenance (acronym TMA) refers to outsourcing the maintenance of applications, i.e. entrust all or part of the maintenance of applications to a third-party computer... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Network topologies

    What does "topology" mean? Bus topology Star topology Ring topology What does "topology" mean? A computer network is made of computers which are linked to one another with communication lines (network cables, etc.) and hardware elements... Read more

    Introduction to Networks
    October 29, 2013 at 04:28 PM
  • Network equipment - Bridges

    Bridges A bridge is a hardware device for linking two networks that work with the same protocol. Unlike a repeater, which works at the physical level, a bridge works at the logical level (on layer 2 in the OSI model), which means that... Read more

    Local Area Network
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • BIOS

    Introduction to BIOS BIOS ("Basic Input/Output System" is an essential component in computers, which is used for controlling hardware. It is a small software program, part of which is loaded in ROM (read-only memory, which cannot be... Read more

    October 18, 2011 at 03:14 PM
  • OOP - Data encapsulation

    The concept of encapsulation Encapsulation is a way of organizing data and methods into a structure by concealing the the way the object is implemented, i.e. preventing access to data by any means other than those specified.... Read more

    Object-Oriented Programming
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • inetinfo - inetinfo.exe

    inetinfo - inetinfo.exe inetinfo.exe (inetinfo stands for Internet Information Service) is a Windows NT/2000/XP generic process which corresponds to the web server IIS (Microsoft Information Server). The process inetinfo is not in any... Read more

    Windows processes
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • BIOS optimization

    What is the BIOS? Why optimize your BIOS? What does the BIOS setup look like? The Video ROM BIOS shadow function Disable unneeded options BIOS parameters related to memory Burst access Wait states Refresh What is the BIOS? The BIOS... Read more

    Computer: maintenance
    November 12, 2012 at 03:20 PM
  • Data compression

    Why compress data? Nowadays, the computing power of processors increases more quickly than storage capacities, and is much faster than network band-widths, because this requires enormous changes in the telecommunication infrastructures.... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • The BMP format

    The BMP format The BMP is one of the simplest formats. It was jointly developed by Microsoft and IBM, which explains why it is particularly widespread on Windows and OS/2 platforms. A BMP file is a bitmap file, i.e. a graphic image... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network)

    Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) A wireless personal area network (WPAN for short) is a low-range wireless network which covers an area of only a few dozen metres. This sort of network is generally used for linking peripheral... Read more

    March 5, 2018 at 03:55 AM
  • User Guide

    The forum is an area for our users to discuss information technology. Forum contributors are volunteers who want to help users looking for information. Since users come from all over the world, and mostly from different... Read more

    August 13, 2018 at 05:43 PM