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  • Installing a VPN server in Windows XP

    Advantages of a VPN The set-up of a virtual private network enables the secure connection of remote computers through an unreliable connection (Internet), as if they were on the same local area network. This process is used by a variety... Read more

    Network configuration
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Substitution cipher

    Substitution cipher Substitution cipher involves replacing one or more entities (generally letters) in a message with one or more other entities. There are several types of substitution cryptosystems: Monoalphabetic substitution... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Enterprise Application Integration (EAI)

    Introduction to the EAI concept The purpose of EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) is the interoperability and organization of the flow of information between heterogeneous applications, i.e. ensure communcation between the... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Linux - The Vi editor

    Introduction to Vi Despite its very limited ergonomics, Vi i is one of the most popular text editors texte under Unix type systems (with Emacs and pico). Under Linux, there is a free version of Vi called Vim (Vi Improved). Vi... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • OOP - Data encapsulation

    The concept of encapsulation Encapsulation is a way of organizing data and methods into a structure by concealing the the way the object is implemented, i.e. preventing access to data by any means other than those specified.... Read more

    Object-Oriented Programming
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Creating a LAN

    Why set up a LAN? If you have several computers, it may be worthwhile to connect them in order to create a local area network (LAN). Setting up such a network is much less expensive than what you might think. Here are a few ways you... Read more

    Practical notes
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Flashing the BIOS

    What does it mean "to flash"? The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) is a small memory chip located on the motherboard containing data that defines the system parameters. The data may, however, contain errors (bugs). Furthermore, when new... Read more

    Computer: maintenance
    May 25, 2012 at 07:23 PM
  • S/PDIF format

    S/PDIF format The S/PDIF standard ("Sony/Philips Digital Interface", or SPDIF for short) is a digital audio data transfer format. It is an international standard known as "IEC-958 type II", which defines both hardware specifications... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Installing a network adapter

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to set up a network to enable data exchanges between computers, resource sharing and network games. Is it therefore necessary to install a network card in each computer that may be part of the... Read more

    Network configuration
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Rules for proper email use

    Netiquette Netiquette (a contraction of the words "Net" and "etiquette") refers to the set of rules governing correct behavior on the Internet, in order to respect others and be respected in turn. They serve as guidelines for civility... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Positioning elements in CSS

    Using style sheets along with the and tags, you can specify the location of text or images down to the pixel. This is possible with versions 4 and higher of Netscape and Internet Explorer; however, the technique is still problematic and... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Introduction to DOS

    The development of MS-DOS MS-DOS is the most well known operating system, the most commercialised version is that of Microsoft, christened "MS-DOS" (there are other versions such as DR-DOS). MS-DOS was created in 1981 when it was used... Read more

    MS Dos
    March 15, 2018 at 03:24 PM
  • PS/2 connector

    PS/2 connector The PS/2 connector (mini-DIN6 format) is mainly used to connect computers to keyboards and mice. Pins Pin number Function 1 DATA 2 Not Connected 3 Ground 4 Power, +5VDC 5 Clock 6 Not connected... Read more

    Cables and connectors
    November 10, 2010 at 08:57 AM
  • FTP commands

    The FTP protocol FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is a protocol — meaning a standard language that lets two machines communicate — used so that computers of different types (or with different operating systems) can transfer files over a... Read more

    Networking tools
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Sharing an Internet connection with Jana Server

    Advantages If you have a LAN (two or more computers connected in a network, i.e., each has a network card), of which one is connected to the Internet (via a modem, cable, etc.), it may be worthwhile to make the Internet accessible to... Read more

    Practical notes
    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • Establishing a Quality Procedure

    Establishing a Quality Procedure Improving quality (reducing bad quality and improving work processes) in a company requires reflection by both the management and all the employees in order to define the reachable goals in terms of... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • BIOS optimization

    What is the BIOS? Why optimize your BIOS? What does the BIOS setup look like? The Video ROM BIOS shadow function Disable unneeded options BIOS parameters related to memory Burst access Wait states Refresh What is the BIOS? The BIOS... Read more

    Computer: maintenance
    November 12, 2012 at 03:20 PM
  • Spreadsheet - Expressions

    The Concept of an Expression Expressions allow the spreadsheets to perform simple calculations using values from many cells. There are generally many types of expressions: Arithmetic expressions Conditional expressions Text expressions... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • vector and bitmap images

    vector images and bitmap images There are two main categories of images: bitmap images (also called raster images): these are pixeled images, i.e. a set of points (pixels) contained in a table, each of these points having one or more... Read more

    October 16, 2008 at 09:43 AM
  • The Klez virus

    Introduction to the Klez virus Appearing early in 2002, the Klez virus is still everywhere on networks, and the danger it poses is even higher due to the new variations that keep cropping up (like Klez.e, Klez.g, Klez.h, Klez.i, Klez.k,... Read more

    Viruses and threats
    April 16, 2018 at 11:43 AM