LaTeX possesses a highly developed mathematical mode that allows editing and display of mathematicals equations or formulas in a simple way.
There are two ways to access the math mode. The first way is to stay in the body text and enclose the mathematical formulas between the $ character. When the $ character is doubled ($$) the formula will be detached from the body of the text.
For example:
"
text $ formul $ text" gives the following result:
text formula text
"
text $$ formula $$ text" gives the following result:
text
formula
text
Here is a list of useful commands especially designed for the mathematical mode:
Subscript and superscript
indices :
$ X_{indices} $
exponents :
$ X^{exponents}$
Note: if there is a symbol in superscript or subscript, then you can omit the braces.
- fractions: $\frac{numerator}{denominator}$
- root: $\sqrt{expression}$ for a square root, $\sqrt[n]{expression}$ for the nth root.
sum:
$ \displaystyle { \sum_{start condition}^{end condition}} expression of sum$
integrals:
$\int_start^arrival f(x)dx$
limit:
$ \displaystyle {\lim_{variable \rightarrow (value being pointed to, by variable)}}f(x)$
To define matrices, we can either use the "array" environment or use the 'amsmath' package (you must then place the \usepackage{amsmath} command in the header of the document), using the following environments:
- matrix;
- pmatrix for a matrix enclosed in parentheses;
- bmatrix for a matrix surrounded by square brackets;
- vmatrix for a matrix enclosed by vertical lines;
- Vmatrix for a matrix enclosed by double vertical lines;
An example of a matrix:
$ \begin{pmatrix}
element1&element2 \\
element3&element4
\end{pmatrix}$
Here is a graphical result:
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