Well, there's no SOFTWARE:AUDIO category, so I'll use the same VIDEO category you used on the VLC answer you posted.
Would you please revisit this question for VLC on the current ANDROID platform? There is no such settings screen to force an artwork download or declare specific JPG tagged to an MP3. I've heard things, such as naming the album art "CD.JPG" in each folder (and having your file manager complain of 1000s of cd.jpg "duplicates" all over your phone! ????) I have about a 20% success with that. It seems like VLC just can't "see" the album art file.