The SATA controller configuration in the system BIOS If the SATA controller gets toggled from ATA to AHCI mode (or vice versa), then Windows will not be able to talk to the SATA controller because the different modes require different drivers. Try toggling the SATA controller mode in the BIOS.
RAID settings You may receive this error if you've been experimenting with the RAID controller settings. Try changing the RAID settings back to Autodetect (usually accurate).
Improperly or poorly seated cabling Try reseating the data cables that connect the drive and its controller at both ends.
Hard drive failure Run the built-in diagnostics on the hard drive. Remember: Code 7 signifies correctable data corruption, not disk failure.
File system corruption Launch the recovery console from the Windows installation disc and run chkdsk /f /r.
Improperly configured BOOT.INI (Windows Vista). If you have inadvertently erased or tinkered with the boot.ini file, you may receive stop code 0x7B during the startup process. Launch the recovery console from the Windows installation disc and run BOOTCFG /REBUILD
STOP 0x00000024 (NTFS_FILE_SYSTEM)
This stop code indicates the NTFS file system driver encountered a situation it could not handle, and is almost always caused by 3 things:
Data corruption on the disk
Data corruption in memory
The system completely running out of memory (this typically only happens on heavily-loaded servers)
Things to check
Reseat the memory and all drive data cables to eliminate data corruption issues stemming from poorly or improperly seated hardware.
Run a complete memory and hard drive diagnostic. The quick test will not be thorough enough here. You need to run the full system diagnostic.
If those diagnostics pass, run a full file system check from the Recovery Console (chkdsk /f /r) to detect and (potentially) fix any corrupted data.
If none of the above solves the issue, reinstall Windows.
If that does not fix the issue, replace the hard drive.