By default, the Gmail app allows you to rapidly archive or delete messages by swiping your finger left or right over an email. The left-swipe Archive option removes a message from your inbox, moving it to your inbox's All Mail tab:
The right-swipe Delete option permanently deletes a selected message, moving it to the Trash folder:
To customize these options, open the Gmail app and tap Menu > Settings > General settings > Gmail default action. Here, you can choose to reset your default swipe gestures for Archive and Delete:
Image: © Google.